And surely biomedical and genetic research will also lead to new safe and effective therapies for people with unwanted short stature. Researchers already know, that genes on the Y-chromsome influence human height (the reason, why men are usually taller than women). And we know some genes, that are responsible for severe growth disorders, e.g. the gene for achondroplasia (the most common severe growth disorder) was discovered in 1994 by researchers at the University of California. An international research team from Germany, the Netherlands and Japan found the SHOX-gene, which is responsible for another growth disorder. Additionally it is known, that all the cells of the human skeleton are replaced within 4 years, also in adults. So biomedical therapies should be able to influence the bone growth process. And some British molecular biologists are interested in growth plate cartilage research and Dr. Simon Lee from the Chinese University of Hong Kong is working on a tissue engineered growth plate implant. Dr. Levine at the John Hopkins Institute is looking for the genetic roots of towering height. Lately there is also some encouraging news about stem cell therapies, that can grow new bone. These cell therapies may also be used to increase height. Perhaps the most exciting research results and visions come from the Wiscon Institute, where Dr. Heber-Katz works. She thinks, that it will be possible to regrow whole limbs by gene and cell therapies. If her research is successful, it will probably result in completely new therapies to increase height safely and effectively.